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Organizado por Agustín Valenzuela Fernández, Robert Menard, Emma Carmelo, Maria del Mar del Pino, , Fabián Lorenzo, José David Machado

2nd ICA-RIIP-ULL COURSE / CAMPUS AMERICA

  • Fechas:

    Del 16/10/17 al 20/10/17

  • Lugar:

    Salón de grados de la Facultad de Farmacia de la ULL, Entrada Campus Anchieta, 4, 38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, España (mapa)

Web del evento

Descripción ↑ subir

 

2nd ICA-RIIP-ULL COURSE / CAMPUS AMERICA

PARASITOLOGY AND VIRUSES: GENOMICS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 

 

The “Institut Pasteur” International Network (IPIN/RIIP) and the and the University of La Laguna (ULL) through the Institute of Tropical Diseases and Public Health of the Canary Islands (IUETSPC-ULL) jointly organize the Second International Collaborative Action (2nd ICA-RIIP-ULL COURSE), within the CAMPUS AMERICA ULL-initiative. This year’s title is: “Parasitology, Viruses and Genomics of Infectious Disease”, as a continuation of the 1st ICA-RIIP-ULL Course (Molecular approaches towards control of parasitic and viral threats: from the field to the bench and back”).

The co-organizers of this 2nd International Scientific, Training Course are Dr. Robert Menard (I. Pasteur, Paris) and Drs. María del Mar del Pino, Emma Carmelo, Fabián Lorenzo, José David Machado and Agustín Valenzuela-Fernández on the ULL side.

Scientists from several RIIP and IUETSPC-ULL centers, with the collaboration of researchers coming from other countries all over the world (i.e., Canada, United States of America, China, United Kingdom, France, Senegal and Spain) will impart a week-long course between 16-20 October 2017 at the ULL-Pharmacy Section of the Faculty of Health Sciences (La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain). This initiative is part of an International high-level scientific training Program for young scientists, coordinated by the ULL and the “Institut Pasteur International Network”.

Eminent scientist attending this 2nd ICA-RIIP-ULL course are from: I. Pasteur (Paris, France), I. Pasteur Dakar (Senegal), I. Pasteur Shanghai (China), INRS-“Institut Armand-Frappier” (I. Pasteur RIIP) (Canada), University of California, San Francisco (USA), Stanford University (USA), University of Birmingham (UK), University of Grenoble (France), CIB-CSIC Madrid (Spain), and the Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine “López-Neyra”, IPBLN-CSIC (Spain).

The course is aimed for ULL researchers and master and graduate students working on any topic related to Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Genetics, Biology, Medical Sciences, Biochemistry, Pharmacy, etc., particularly those attending the ULL Masters’ degrees in “Research and Diagnostics of Tropical Diseases” and “Biomedicine”, as well as the Health Sciences Ph.D. Program.

Finally, this RIIP-ULL action is clearly framed within the Priorities of the Research and Innovation Strategy for Intelligent Specialization in the Canary Islands (RIS3), in particular in studies in Biomedicine in the Area of ​​Tropical-Infectious Diseases. It also conforms to the Spanish Strategy for Science and Technology and Innovation: Objectives of the block "IV. Research Oriented to the Challenges of the Society ", item" 11. Health, Demographic Change and Well-being ". And, finally, it fulfills the framework of Horizon 2020 priorities dedicated to the challenges of society, in one of its specific objectives, "Health, demographic change and welfare; action "1.1.2. Understanding the disease" and within the challenge "1.1. Understanding the health, well-being and disease" of H20202.

 

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Robert Menard

“Malaria Infection "> Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Co-organizer of this course
robert.menard@pasteur.fr

Introduction to the biology of apicomplexans

Apicomplexans constitute one the major phylum of protists and some are of major human importance, such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium. This lecture will present the major unifying structural and functional features of these parasites, with an emphasis of their secretory system, their capacity to move on substrates by gliding motility, to penetrate host cells inside a vacuole or to traverse them by membrane disruption.

 

Salah Mecheri

Director of “Biology of Host-parasite Interactions” Group

Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

salah.mecheri@pasteur.fr

Strategies developed by the Plasmodium parasite to escape host immune responses

The high degree of complexity in the Plasmodium parasite life cycle, the large number of encoded proteins, their biological redundancy, and their polymorphisms makes the understanding of the host immune response difficult to apprehend. The current knowledge highlights the existence of multiple layers of immunological mechanisms which seem to take place concomitantly, including dysregulated inflammatory response, immune suppression, and mostly the lack of long-lasting immune memory.

 

Albert Descoteaux

Director of “Biology of host-pathogen interactions” Group

INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier; Institut Pasteur RIIP Canada

Department of Microbiology and Immunology of McGill University. 

albert.descoteaux@iaf.inrs.ca

Leishmania and the macrophage membrane fusion machinery

Leishmania and the macrophage membrane fusion machinery Successful vacuolar pathogens have developed sophisticated strategies to hijack the endomembrane system of host cells and evade antimicrobial responses. The protozoan parasite Leishmania, the causative agent of leishmaniases in humans, is particularly adept at transforming the macrophage into a hospitable host cell. As they establish within phagocytes, Leishmania promastigotes release virulence-associated molecules that sabotage host cell microbicidal and immune functions. Recent work from our laboratory on the impact of these virulence factors on the macrophage membrane fusion machinery and host cell function will be presented.

 

Mohamed-Ali Hakimi

Head of the “Host-pathogen Interactions "> Institut Albert Bonniot, INSERM 1209, CNRS UMR5309, UGA

University of Grenoble, France

Toxoplasma Molecular Mimicry: from Immune Evasion to Parasite Persistence

«Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite that can cause birth defects, organ damage, or impaired vision in susceptible individuals. During my talk, I will address how Toxoplasma gondii is able to co-opt specific host cell signaling pathways upon invasion. Along the way, I will describe how novel effector proteins that are singularly exported beyond the vacuole-containing parasites and reach the host cell nucleus are able to rewire the host genome expression. » 

 

Philippe Bastin

Director of the “Trypanosome Cell Biology” Structure

Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

philippe.bastin@pasteur.fr

Living in multiple tissues in different hosts: the challenges of the trypanosome life cycle

"Trypanosomes are extracellular parasites transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly and responsible for sleeping sickness. They are known to live in the blood but it was recently found out that their main location is the skin, changing the paradigm for transmission, diagnosis and treatment."

 

Amadou A. Sall

General Director of the Institute Pasteur Dakar, Senegal

Amadou.SALL@pasteur.sn

Arboviruses and hemorrhagic fever viruses: from the field to the bench and vice versa

Arbovirus and viral hemorrhagic have been recently a major threat to global health security as demonstrated by the crises of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa (2014-2016), Zika virus in 2015-16 and yellow fever in Angola, DRC and Brazil in 2016-2017. Control of response to those epidemics imply an integrated programme in research and public health that would address field and bench work to develop medical countermeasures, evaluate and implement them in an interactive and iterative approach. In this talk, several case studies will be presented and a generic approach suggested to improve preparedness, response and control of epidemic.

 

Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos

Scientific Director of the Institute Pasteur, Shanghai, China

farenzan@ips.ac.cn

HIV: gates and way of entry and escape

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication cycle starts by the binding and entry of the viral particle into the host cell. This process is initiated by the specific binding of the HIV glycoprotein envelope trimer (Env) to the primary cellular receptor CD4 followed, upon induced conformational changes in Env, by the binding to a cellular coreceptor which in turn promotes ultimately the fusion of the viral and the host cell membranes. Revealing the mechanism of HIV entry has profound implications for viral tropism, transmission, pathogenesis, and therapeutic intervention. We will present and discuss the current view of this complex mechanism focusing in the role played by HIV coreceptors and the inhibitory mechanisms mediated by their natural ligands (chemokine) and their contribution to the mechanisms of viral escape, the emergence of HIV resistances and viral tropism.

 

Phillipe Glaser

Head of the “Ecology and Evolution of Antibiotics Resistance” Structure

Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

philippe.glaser@pasteur.fr

The impact of antibiotics on the gut microbiome: a reservoir of antibiotic resistance.

Overuse and misuse of antibiotics not only led to the selection of antibiotic resistant and multiresistant clones difficult to treat. It has also a profound impact on the composition of the human gut microbiome. This lecture will describe methods used to analyze the human gut microbiome and its resistome (the collection of antibiotic resistance genes or ARG) and the impact of antibiotics. Gut microbiome is indeed a major reservoir of ARG and antibiotics usage contributes to the selection and exchange of antibiotics resistance genes between different bacterial species of the gut.

 

Nicholas J. Loman 

Head of the “Cutting-edge sequencing with microbial genomics” Group

University of Birmingham, UK

n.j.loman@bham.ac.uk

Single molecule nanopore sequencing for real-time diagnosis and epidemiology of pathogens

In this talk I will examine the role of portable, real-time genome sequencing for the diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases. I will focus on the Oxford Nanopore MinION single molecule nanopore sequencing instrument for understanding the evolution and biology of pathogens. During the 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic we deployed nanopore sequencing to West Africa to track Ebola virus evolution. In 2016, in response to the Zika epidemic in the Americas we established a mobile sequencing laboratory that travelled through Brazil to understand the spread of Zika. Initially we have focused on virus applications but as the output of the nanopore sequencer has increased, bacterial whole genome assembly has become routine, even in field situations. The nanopore platform permits detection of methylation and base modifications and can also sequence RNA directly, important in pathogen biology. I will discuss opportunities for near-patient genome sequencing on our ability to fight infectious diseases.

 

Alicia Bravo

Head of the “Gene Expression and Gene Transfer Among Bacteria” Group

CIB-CSIC, Madrid, Spain

abravo@cib.csic.es

Global regulation of gene expression in Gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria

Global transcriptional regulators play a key role in the adaptation of bacterial cells to specific niches of their eukaryotic hosts. This is likely the case of the MgaSpn and MafR proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. Both bacteria have a commensal lifestyle but can become pathogenic and cause deadly infections. Our research has been focussed on the study of MgaSpn and MafR, with emphasis in their DNA-binding properties and the identification of their target genes. The links between regulation of gene expression, bacterial adaptation to new host niches and pathogenesis will be discussed.

 

Rosa Fregel

Research Associate, Department of Genetics 

Stanford University, USA

rfregel@gmail.com

Recovering Ancient Plasmodium DNA using Whole Genome in Solution Capture (WISC)

Ancient DNA research on infectious agents is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms of pathogens and parasites evolution and adaptation. However, obtaining ancient DNA from infectious agents using PCR techniques has been challenging, due to both DNA degradation and contamination from environmental DNA. The development of next-generation sequencing has allowed the recovery of full pathogen genomes, and it has provided tools for identifying authentic ancient pathogen DNA. In this seminar, we will explore the application of ancient DNA techniques to the study of past disease in human remains, using as an example the 19th malaria epidemic in the Indian Ocean.

 

Javier Martín

Head of the Group of Genetic Basis of Autoimmune Diseases

Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine López-Neyra, IPBLN-CSIC, Spain

javiermartin@ipb.csic.es

Genomic studies in parasitic diseases

Whereas prior attempts at discovering human genetic differences affecting susceptibility to disease relied on genotyping one or a handful of candidate genetic variants, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have now become a common means of searching for susceptibility genes in an unbiased way. These studies have highlighted the relevance of particular pathways in pathogenesis of infectious and autoimmune disease. Thus, GWAS of clinical phenotypes can alert host-pathogen researchers to unexpected links between their pathway of study and human disease.

 

Noah Zaitlen

Head of the Group of Statistical and Population Genetics

Department of Medicine, Lung Biology Center

University of California San Francisco, USA

Noah.Zaitlen@ucsf.edu

Analysis of microbial communities using RNAseq data

High throughput RNA sequencing technologies have provided invaluable research opportunities across distinct scientific domains by producing quantitative readouts of the transcriptional activity of both entire cellular populations and single cells. The majority of RNA-Seq analyses begin by mapping each experimentally produced sequence (i.e., read) to a set of annotated reference sequences for the organism of interest. However, a significant fraction of reads remains unmapped due to both biological and technical reasons. We have developed a new protocol that allows discovering the source of all reads, originated from complex RNA molecules, recombinant antibodies and microbial communities. Using this protocol, we show that immune profiles of asthmatic individuals have decreased T-cell/B-cell receptor diversity and that immune diversity is inversely correlated with microbial load.

 

Manuel Espinosa

Full professor

CIB-CSIC, Madrid, Spain

mespinosa@cib.csic.es

 

Horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic-resistances among Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria

The spread of antibiotic resistances (AbR) among pathogenic bacteria constitute a threat for human and cattle wellbeing. The relevance of this problem has been stressed over and over by the World Health Organization along the years (http://www.who.int/antimicrobial-resistance/en/). Among the priority list of pathogens (WHO, February 2017) several Gram-positive bacteria were included (staphylococci, enterococci and pneumococci). Spread of AbR mainly occurs by Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT), especially by conjugation mediated by plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Conjugation involves physical contact between a donor and a recipient cell, and the process is initiated and terminated by dedicated proteins (termed relaxases) that have topoisomerase-endonuclease activity on the target DNA. We shall present the mechanisms involved in conjugative transfer in the aforementioned bacteria and discuss some of the strategies that could be considered as relevant to tackle the spread of AbR mediated by HGT.

 

Sam S. Oh

Director of Epidemiology, Asthma Collaboratory

Department of Medicine

University of California San Francisco, USA

Sam.Oh@ucsf.edu

DNA methylation and immunological disorders

All cells in our body contain the same DNA and genes, yet they give rise to different tissues and organs. How does this happen? DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for controlling DNA expression so that the right gene is expressed in the right place, at the right time, and in the right amount. Methylation marks are heritable (i.e., stable) but are also highly dynamic and can be influenced by disease, age, sex, and environmental exposures. This lecture will give an introductory overview to epigenetics and provide examples related to infection and asthma. 

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